Python Modules

Python has an excellent feature of structuring and organizing the codes. These range from statements and control structures through functions, methods, and classes at the scripts level and modules and packages at the libraries level.

What is Python Module?

A module is a file containing a piece of prewritten code that allows a program to perform a function or task without coding it inside the program. Python modules are also saved as ".py" extension

Python has special statements to import a module. Generally, a Python program imports the modules at the beginning of the script. Without importing, a program cannot use a module.

You can create modules or import modules from the PyPI repository using the pip package manager.

Installing 3rd Party Modules in Python

3rd party modules in Python need to be installed before you can import them. You use the pip cli tool to install these 3rd party modules. The basic syntax of the command to install a module is


pip install module_name


For example, to install the numpy module, we enter the following command in the cmd prompt or terminal


pip install numpy


You can also specify a particular version of the module you want to install. Like this


pip install numpy==1.13.6


How to import modules in Python

import statement is used to import a module in a python program. You can import more than modules with the import statement. Like this


import numpy      #importing single module
import math, pandas, datetime       #importing multiple modules



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Importing only some parts of a module

Sometimes, you want one part of the module to be imported into our program. For that, you can use the from the statement. With from statement, you can import only the necessary parts of a module instead of the whole module. For example


from math import factorial




Renaming an Imported Module

as keyword is used in Python to rename an imported module. For example


import datetime as dt



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How to create a module in Python

Creating a module in Python is pretty simple. You have to write the member functions and variables to be included in the module. You then save this code in a .py python file. Then, import the file as you did above using the import statement. For example

You create a file called Then you define a function in the file. Like this


def sayhi():


You can import this module into our program using the import statement. Like this


import custom_module_example




Python dir() function

The dir() function is used to return all the member functions and attributes of a python object or module(even the user-created ones). You use it like this


import custom_module_example



['__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__', '__spec__', 'sayhi']

Some Popular Python Modules

Given below are some of the most commonly used modules in Python

Module Description
datetime Provides functionalities related to handling and representing date and time data
math Provides various mathematical functions
random Provides functions that can generate data randomly
pygame Allows the programmer to create basic games in Python easily
re Provides features like pattern matching and regular expression
numpy Provides multidimensional array, matrices and various methods to operate on them
beautifulsoup4 Provides functions that performs tasks related to web-scraping
matplotlib Allows the programmer to plot mathematical graphs
django Provides various functionalities related to handling backend of a website
requests Provides functions that can send data over http